Centre for Culture, Media & Governance, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Academic Staff College, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi conducts and organizes every year the University Grants Commission Refresher Course on Media Studies, Culture and Governance for the in-service faculty across the country. The first & second such RCs were organized in February 2013& Jan-Feb 2014.
The 3rd Refresher Course 2014 on Media Studies and Governance started today on 10thJanuary and will continue till 31st January 2015
11th Day (23/01/15)
1st Lecture by Prof. Oliver on Public Media and Diplomacy
Prof. Oliver spoke on media and diplomacy. According to him, diplomacy is made by actors not by politicians or diplomats. New actors or new types of audience and governance are now a day’s involved in communication and diplomacy. Since India has big cities, many industries, many labourers we have different kind of norms, policies, rescaling stages like new types of governance, state, regions and cities and systemic stakes like climate change, trade, social migrations due to globalizations, we have digital devices, tools of communication and new types of active protagonist for advocacy and lobbying. He defined four types of media diplomacy in this lecture. These are: Media Advocacy, Soft Power, Public Diplomacy & Influence and Digital Influence
Defining Lobbying and Advocacy, he said that advocacy deals with political sciences, communication including competiveness, law and business. It is a political process by an individual group which aims influence public policy and resolution allocation decision within political, economic, and social systems and institution. It helps in resource allocation, development, to support or recommend publicly, plead for or speak in favor of one cause.
He further defined the definition of lobbying is that to influence directly or indirectly elaborating procedures concerning laws, norms and standards. Moreover, any action on public policies depends on lobbying. They use media to have wide coverage and build relations. Similarly they use NGOs for direct and indirect lobbying. Other names for lobbying are public affairs, public relations, institutional relations, political communications etc. There are different types of lobbying exist like diplomatic (between peers), strategic (economic dimension by private companies), transversal (where civil societies organizations challenge companies), juridical etc. He concluded by defining public diplomacy is that listening, advocacy, cultural diplomacy, exchange, international broadcasting etc are the part of public diplomacy. Cultural diplomacy is an actor’s attempt to manage the international environment through making its cultural resources and achievements known overseas and /or facilitating cultural transmission abroad.
2nd Lecture by Dr. Ankuran Dutta on Community Media
Dr. Ankuran Dutta delivered an interactive and participatory lecture on community media. Major focus in the lecture was on basic understanding of community, community media, types and characteristics, definition, different terminologies, basics, participation, the reasons of using community media and how it works. While defining the concept of community, he says that it is “A social groups of any size whose members reside in a specific locality, share government, and often have a common cultural and historical heritage and perceived or perceiving itself as distinct in some respect from the larger society”. In other words, he says that a community having a social unit of any size, having a particular characteristic in common or that shares common values and having an identity may be geographical, political, economic, religious, cultural, or virtual.
As per the understanding of community media, he says that community media, is a form of a participatory media which is created, controlled and influenced by community. Fuller (2007) defines community media as, when members of the community have access for information education and entertainment, when they want to access, and community participates as planners, producers and performers. No doubt, Community media played a vibrant role in recent changes and developments emerged in different parts of the world. The different forms of community media have always helped civic society to raise their voice for the common interests and benefits. At the time of TV, Radio and Newspaper, it was mostly one side communication, the flow of information was mostly one sided – from media center to civic society. With the emergence of new tools as e-mail, Facebook, Twitter, blogs etc, the dimensions and horizon of community media has been changed. Mobile phone even enhanced the conversation and communication in public sphere.
There are different types community media like communication traditional tool i.e. folk media such as visual/display tools; community print media i.e. community newspaper, community magazine; community electronic media like community radio, video and television; community new media such as community website and portal, social media which currently do exist. He concluded by saying that community media requires to be used for the following reasons i.e. democratic views, social causes, development goals and towards empowerment.
3rd Lecture by Prof. Diwakar on Media Violence
He spoke on ‘media violence’ and how violence scene on violence in media in general, film in particulars have changed over a period of time and how it has affected on psyche of the human being. Since cinema is the powerful medium for bringing the social change since pre-independent time. It has not only helped political and elite class, rather it has been most entertainment medium at grass root level. Though we have alternative medium like TV and radio as it scattered, the cinema views have decreased due to more expensive. He says that images are required for hoardings and publicity, but the quality of images remains concern so far.
He made an attempt by showing few film clips which depicts the violence and nature of change of violence occurred over a period of time. He said that in “Achhyut Kanya” (1936) how the fights have been picturised in terms of the violence among Brahmin and Dalit people in a village set up. Thing is that the way confrontation and fight was happening was related with natural scene takes place in the village. But the similar fights have been changed now-a days due to modernization of technology. In Vinod Ray’s film in 1953 called “Bissel Thief”, how violent takes place between man and the machine. During the process of accelerating, it was physical endurance for man to fight with machine which is not being seen in these days. He says that in another film which is more emotional in terms of mother kills her son to provide justice to the society. At that time the relationship between mother and son was completely complementary to that. Here the issue of violence comes through gun which has come to force. Then, the violent portion film like Mugal-E-Azam in 1960, was shown and explained that due to technological process and technological efficient man do change it’s colour and reaction which was not during the age of black and white time. In film like ‘Sholay’ in 1975, violence was constantly challenged that it was more impact where people prefer to watch. Why people are watching violence, it requires a further in-depth investigation in research, he added. In the rape scene of the film like Bandit Queen, how gruesome and difficult it was, instead of having censorship still it has created erotic images which had great snowball effect on society thereafter. Comparing with the film “Agneepath” released in 1990 and 2012 and the film “Ra. One” he said that technological innovation takes the way they use of fire, flame and actions which has not affected the body. The quality of the film is completely different than earlier one. He ended the lecture by saying that the violence is getting more intense day by day due to animatronics which is found combination of animation and electronics now-a-days and have greater effect on human psyche in imitating, copying the same in real life. That is inviting more dangerous in these days.