Centre for Culture, Media & Governance, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Academic Staff College, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi conducts and organizes every year the University Grants Commission Refresher Course on Media Studies, Culture and Governance for the in-service faculty across the country. The first & second such RCs were organized in February 2013& Jan-Feb 2014.
The 3rd Refresher Course 2014 on Media Studies and Governance started today on 10thJanuary and will continue till 31st January 2015
12th Day (24/01/15)
1st Lecture by Prof. Manjali on Contemporary Language Debate
In his introduction, Prof. Manjali spoke on contemporary language debate that how language is used in communication concern and used across all disciplines. In social science, the problems remain as social problem, how people project and view of language or official language by the concerned. These are the superficial language in terms of political terms. But he said it is more concern how other scholars react and look at the language debate. How language is mostly taken as historical context and instrument. He highlighted the key areas given below where the language is addressed.
Knowledge of language remains in the problem of cognitive, he said that knowledge is mostly important in teaching, learning and translation from one to other language, intra-linguistic translation from mainstream local language. Knowledge languages have practical implication. Problems of truth are that one may agree or may not agree on that. Problem of cognitive – this is a philosophical problem propounded by scholars like knowledge of the world through language (about truth). Language is a system/structure– where language is a system of science, interconnected elements or grammar of language, Use of Language (problem in pragmatics)- it is also concerned with grammar, creates indirect knowledge, related with nationalism like mother nation for instance Bankim Chatterjee called mother India, Language as human existence (existential problem) for instance English is not English’s man’s language but one enter the language. Sometimes the person is speaking on language may not have his/her own language though unconsciously one can say that is my language and better than other’s language. Language for instance “officer” in English country means “servant” but in India it is “Adhikari” sometimes it becomes “authority”. Because of misunderstanding of language and cultural problem where one cannot claim that it is his language. According to few scholars, how untouchable means we cannot touch the high, where in Indian context, untouchable means Dalit which it has become arbitrary imposition for Indianness. The use of language in political gain is seen also arbitrariness. He ended the lecture by saying that understanding of language remains culture therefore language is an abstraction.
2nd Lecture by Prof. Manjali on Contemporary Language Debate
Prof. Manjali continued the lecture on “contemporary language debate” and focused on diversified evolution of language, culture and mind neither is it is given personally permanently nor it is given in specific situation based on human mind. According to Benedict Anderson, whose book on “Imagined Communities” focuses on nationalism, in reality where nation don’t exist but have to be imagined into existence. European nations are mono-language in nature where India is multi-language. Therefore, colonialisation takes place in early 16th century, then, Vascodama came to India in 1498. Due to emergence of printing technology, languages are spread and disseminated through printing technology. At result, national consciousness emerged due to more participation of consciousness of self and religion the way it functions.
Unity in term of language and culture, national consciousness and nation-state takes place, where British used “Republic”. When British used common wealth countries, India as an independent but remain the part of common wealth country. By explaining a historical trajectory of Indian society in terms of language, he said that 2nd half sixteen century, Sir William Jones, looking for Persian law to discover Sanskirt language. Since Indian law is basically based on Manu’s Law, then he translated Manus’s law into English. Later on they discovered the Sankskrit language because Sanskrit language defines law since it governs Indian society.
Superior language in European country is Hebrew that values a lot but it is not questioned in the beginning. In Latin, they say that language have superior when they have language as super structure. Newly perfect language in India is Sanskrit which has in fractional structure. Language is constantly created by human endeavour, made /unmade. It is a homonisation.
According to mythical story, the original language is originated from God. He concluded the lecture by saying that language is the possession of universal system of mind.
3rd Lecture by Dr Neshat Quaiser on Urdu Language
Dr Neshat Quaiser spoke on “Urdu Language” and started saying the language history that Sanskrit language was very close to caste system. During 300 B.C., a new Sanskrit language came into existence called Vedic or Sahitya Sanskrit. Vedic literature was based on oral tradition after Mahenjodar language and script was formed. Surseni Adhyansa came into existence that called modern languages called Hindi, Urdu. In long history of Urdu language, like Hindusthani, Hindusthan and Hindusthanic which was based on Colonial construct but earlier was ignorant of Colonials. The language was earlier known as Hindivi, Hindi, Devnavi, Gujuri, Revta, Dakhani in 18th century came to be known as Urdu language. But the language was originated from Punjab followed by Delhi.
Looking at the history, he said that Urdu is not originated from foreign rather it is born and brought up in India. Hindu and Muslim elite did not patronize Urdu language. Writing in Urdu was considered to be at the some point of time as a revolt of class system. Sufi is early called Urdu as early form of communication. Urdu language is evolved from 12th century and gets flourished in 17th and 18th century then it was enriched and developed. During anti colonial movement, Urdu was the fore front language in using across all regions in India. Gaddasi, a French scholar and linguist observed that most Urdu newspaper played a key role in promoting 1857 war of independence. During the war, many Urdu writers and poets who were writing against colonialism were killed.
Dr. Quaiser said that it is most important to know that colonial context and to understand the contemporary linguistic issues for both Hindu and Muslim. Madan Mohan Malviya said at that time that Sanskrit cannot be a mixture of Hindi language. Language divide or domination was a political issue where different language was created for Hindu and Muslim separately. By 1819 ‘Persian’ language was replace by Urdu. Purpose was to create reaction among Hindu. The debate continued on medium instruction where in 1933, English become a medium of instruction in colleges and universities. In his concluding remark, he emphasized that dominant ethos or constitutive element in Urdu language and literature which is composite, integrative, multi-cultural and secular and secularizing agencies in public arena it is against Brahmin, Muslims, Mullah, Sikh, power structure and against all form of departure etc